Formation Of Readyness For Work And Professional Orientation Of Children From Preparatory Groups (4-6 Years Old) İn The Classes On “Design And Technologies


Formation of Readyness for Work and Professional Orientation of Children from Preparatory Groups (4-6 Years Old) in the Classes on “Design and Technologies”

Diana SEVDALINOVA Ph.D. Student University of Plovdiv 

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The formation of readiness for work and professional orientation is a process that is key to the development of the personality and should begin from an early age. In this regard, the activity should start from the kindergarten and for this purpose classes in technology and entrepreneurship are provided in the preparatory groups. Through a variety of tasks, adolescents can learn work, skills and habits. Despite their age, this acquired knowledge helps them to form of their work culture. These first meetings with work will probably contribute to the future professional orientation of children when they grow up, as psychologists have repeatedly proven that what was learned in childhood leaves lasting traces in a person’s life as an adult. Based on theoretical and practical tasks, this report proves the thesis that the readiness for work and vocational guidance of children can be strongly developed in preschool, namely during classes in design and technology.

Keywords: technologies, construction, entrepreneurship, labor, orientation, profession, children. Introduction.

Construction and technology as a subject in kindergarten have the main goal to develop in children from an early age the desire to work, but also to support them in the process of their maturation in view of the fact that as they grow up and reach adulthood, they also will be involved in working life with a certain profession. To facilitate this transition and in general the overall idea of the need and benefits of work, in the Bulgarian educational system from an early age of children are set standards to ensure the cultivation of a positive attitude to work and the acquisition of practical skills for work, tailored to the age of the child.

Even in preschool age, children in the Republic of Bulgaria get the opportunity to get acquainted with the work through the planned classes on constructed and technologies in

kindergarten, as these classes cover children from four years of age onwards and end in their preschool age, ie. when they are already six years old. Naturally, after the kindergarten stage, the school education system develops all these knowledge and skills from the first grade to the end of the high school stage.

However, the need and meaning for children to be educated from an early age in work habits in our country is not only indicated by law, but also by a number of studies by leading child educators, which unequivocally prove why children need to build a positive attitude to work. Among these authors stand out the names of Professor Mariana Ivanova and Professor Georgi Ivanov, both support the thesis that the early exposure of children to work is key to their personal formation. In this sense, it can be summarized unequivocally that there is a full consensus between lawmakers and the intellectual elite in our country on the need and positive effect of children to develop work habits from an early age.

Theoretical aspects of the problem.

How to teach science in technology and entrepreneurship to children in the fragile preschool age is laid down in the State Educational Requirements of the Ministry of Education and Science. In view of the early age of the children and its characteristic features, this area is called constructive-technical and everyday activities. For the kindergarten stage, the relevant document regulating the education of preschool children is Ordinance No. 4 of September 18, 2000, and specifically in its point 4, paragraph 8 is set in the curriculum in educational areas for the stage of preschool education to the training in constructive-technical and everyday activities is also included. To item 4, paragraph 8 of the Ordinance also provides an appendix in which the specific cores are described:

  • Core “Design and Modeling”
  • Core “Processing and bonding of materials”
  • Care for yourself and home core

The selection of this type of cores is not random and in fact it involves the acquisition of basic knowledge and skills for working with materials and making simple geometric shapes, as well as connecting them in models of objects, most often those of everyday life around us. Here, as a pedagogue, I see the key connection between the requirements set in the SER for mastering basic work skills and the formation of readiness for work in children in preschool kindergarten: making their own – albeit quite simple – models of objects that surround us and which they have also seen, children have the opportunity to visually enjoy the results of their own work. The feeling of satisfaction with exactly what they see that they have done themselves cultivates in the highest degree in them the desire for work. Once they have done something themselves, work is no longer imaginary for them, it becomes a fun series of actions through which they themselves see how they can they produce an object they like. It is the connection between satisfaction as a feeling and the work performed by the child that leads me to the conclusion that this is the essence for the formation of readiness for work.

Psychologists also emphasize how experienced positive emotion causes children to return again and again to an action or place. In fact, not only children, but for all people, positive emotion is an occasion to return to the actions and places where they experienced it. Bulgarian authors such as Professor Mariana Ivanova also emphasize the positive impact of manual labor on the emotional state of children, as this type of work brings them pleasure from the achieved result. Professor Georgi Ivanov reveals how important it is in the period of kindergarten for pedagogues to stimulate the desire for work and creativity in children in preschool groups, because more or less this is the time of their future professional orientation as individuals. It is at this fragile age that many of them will choose the type of work that they like best given their own personality, a choice that psychologists have defined as still unconscious, but in any case it remains in the memory of children and gives its reflection at  a later stage of their development, either as a direct choice of profession or even as a hobby.

In this sense, it is not yet clear when and why a person chooses his profession after coming of age, but it is very likely that these occupations and labor activities from the period of early childhood will have an impact on this choice, namely as reminiscence. , remained for years in human memory. So the role of work activities in kindergarten should not be underestimated in any way in the professional orientation of the individual. Other authors, such as Professor Lyuben Vitanov, for example, rely on establishing the connection between positive emotion and willingness to work through interesting children’s books, in which children in a preschool group can develop a positive attitude through fairy tales and easy modeling games, as well as cutting and construction applications. to work and readiness for work. The touch of fairy tales makes them identify with favorite characters, while developing their creative potential.

Practical tasks and analysis of their results.

To study the dependence of the extent to which the activities of technology and entrepreneurship in kindergarten form a willingness to work in children in preschool group, I conducted the following empirical study, which is actually part of my own pedagogical practice, ie. is based on two of my favorite tasks from two of the cores in SER:

  • “Design and modeling”
  • “Processing and bonding of materials”

Both tasks can be performed by practically any kindergarten teacher and rely on very simple techniques and materials.

The main tools are:

  • paper,
  • colour pencils, 
  • glue, 
  • scissors,
  • cardboard,

and they can serve both purposes. The tasks have as much a creative, constructive and technological element as a psychological one. My idea is for them to serve as proof of how, through their work in kindergarten, preschool children actually express themselves and their own predictions about what they want and will become when they grow up, while at the same time finding it very difficult to replace them. The research contingent consists of the twenty children in the six-year-old group in the kindergarten, and for this purpose this contingent is divided into ten pairs. The two main research methods are:

  • Empirical – ie. both tasks were repeatedly applied by me and colleagues who liked the experiment with constructive activity, in kindergarten groups of children between four and six years in different
  • Analytical – analysis of the results and experience for their

The duration of each task is about thirty minutes, so that the children have enough time to develop their creative and constructive potential, but also to present themselves in the role of working people and, accordingly, to reproduce this in the tasks.

  1. First task 

The first task requires the child to draw on a white sheet of himself as an adult, in a work environment, how to perform an action. Then he has to cut out only his figure from the drawing and put it in the place of the figure of his friend, who also painted himself and what he imagines works. Finally, each pair of friends gathers and decides whether they like their friend’s choice and whether they want to stick their figure on the white cardboard in the context of the work activity from the friend’s drawing, or whether they want to take their drawing with the drawn work activity and stick their own. your figurine back into it on cardboard.

  1. The second task

The second task requires the child to make from white cardboard – by drawing and cutting or by means of several folding operations – at his choice – from white cardboard an object that he would once enjoy working with. For this purpose, the child is assisted by the teacher, and the choice varies from all options, as the child can draw and cut or cut and fold any object he wants – a car, household utensils, household items, etc. Then the child should explain in simple words why this particular object he made and how he would work with it.

Analysis of the results and interpretation

Table 1 below shows among the ten formed pairs from the first task how many children agreed to stick their figure on their cardboard in the context of the work activity from the drawing of the friend.

Table 1

Distribution of the results of the change of the figure in the drawing – first task 

Couple Yes No
Couple 1. Child 1. +
Couple 1. Child 2. +
Couple 2. Child 1.
Couple 2. Child 2.
Couple 3. Child 1. –
Couple 3. Child 2. –
Couple 4. Child 1.


 The results of the table show that children rarely accept someone to impose another’s dream on them, in this case only in three pairs did the children agree to exchange their figure with that of their friend. They have the opportunity to see themselves in it as working people, but they do not accept it, ie. they don’t like her. This proves unequivocally that in most of us there is obviously an attraction to a certain work activity, which we will eventually choose for a career, just as the children in task one massively refused to stick their figure on the drawing with the foreign and uncharacteristic work of them comrade.

The subjects in the second task put another interesting emphasis on the data from the first task, as eighteen of the twenty children made objects that are also used in the profession they initially drew in the first task. Ie children obviously know from an early age to dream what they will become when they grow up, what they will work for; moreover, they associate this future career development with certain familiar objects and feel the satisfaction of even making them themselves.


As it became clear from the present study presented in the report, the actual activities of technology and entrepreneurship in kindergarten, implemented through the training of

constructive-technical and everyday activities, help children from an early age to build a positive attitude towards work and the desire to perform work activity. At the same time, through this work, they express their own aspirations for professional orientation in life, albeit on a still very primary level. In this sense, they materialize dreams for their careers, and this is very important not only to be encouraged by educators, but also in the family environment.


Literature in Bulgarian

  1. Vitanova, S; Vitanov, L; Dvoryanova, L. “Fabulous summer. Book for future first-graders”, S, 2018.
  2. Ivanova M., Imandieva An., “Technological training in” Arts and Crafts “- a factor for building skills of primary school students in the American school”, Yearbook of the University of Shumen “Bishop Konstantin Preslavski”, Volume XXD, PF , Innovations in Education – Conference with international participation – September 30 – October 2, 2016
  3. Ivanov, G. and others. The pedagogical interaction in the technological preparation of children from 3 to 11 years – second part “Kindergarten”. Ed. TrU Stara Zagora,
  4. Ministry of Education and Science – State educational requirements –
  5. Paspalanova, E., “Psychological dimensions of individualism”, 1999, S. Literature in English
  6. Becky Earhart, Nilam Lakhani, Kim P. Roberts, Developmental trends in children’s source and destination memory, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 202, 2021, 104995, ISSN 0022-0965,                          j.jecp.2020.104995 (